U.S. Employment Trends

U.S. Job Openings Increase to 4.5 Million in April; Hires and Separations Rates Unchanged

There were 4.5 million job openings on the last business day of April, up from 4.2 million in March. The hires rate (3.4 percent) and the separations rate (3.3 percent) were unchanged in April.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER – APRIL 2014

There were 4.5 million job openings on the last business day of April, up from 4.2 million in March, the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The hires rate (3.4 percent) and separations rate (3.3
percent) were unchanged in April. Within separations, the quits rate (1.8 percent) and the layoffs and
discharges rate (1.2 percent) were unchanged in April. This release includes estimates of the number and
rate of job openings, hires, and separations for the nonfarm sector by industry and by four geographic
regions.

Job Openings

Job openings rose to 4.5 million in April, up from 4.2 million in March. The number of job openings
rose for total private and was little changed for government. In retail trade and in arts, entertainment, and
recreation, the number of job openings increased in April. The number of openings also increased in the
Midwest region in April. (See table 1.)

Over the 12 months ending in April, the number of job openings (not seasonally adjusted) rose for total
nonfarm and total private, but was little changed for government. Over the year, the job openings level
increased in several industries and decreased only in federal government. The number of job openings
increased over the year in three of the four regions: Midwest, Northeast, and West. (See table 7.)

Hires

There were 4.7 million hires in April, little changed from March. The number of hires was little changed
for total private and government, and in all industries and regions. (See table 2.)

Over the 12 months ending in April, the number of hires (not seasonally adjusted) increased for total
nonfarm and total private and was little changed for government. The hires level increased over the year
in mining and logging and in retail trade. The number of hires also rose in the Midwest region. (See
table 8.)

Separations

Total separations includes quits, layoffs and discharges, and other separations. Total separations is
referred to as turnover. Quits are generally voluntary separations initiated by the employee. Therefore,
the quits rate can serve as a measure of workers’ willingness or ability to leave jobs. Layoffs and
discharges are involuntary separations initiated by the employer. Other separations include separations
due to retirement, death, and disability, as well as transfers to other locations of the same firm.

There were 4.5 million total separations in April, unchanged from March. The number of total
separations was unchanged for total private and declined in government. (See table 3.)

The quits rate was unchanged at 1.8 percent in April. The rate also was unchanged for total private (2.0
percent) and government (0.6 percent). The quits rate was little changed over the month in all industries
and in all four regions. (See table 4.)

The number of quits (not seasonally adjusted) increased over the 12 months ending in April for total
nonfarm and total private and was little changed for government. The number of quits increased over the
year in retail trade and in accommodation and food services while decreasing in finance and insurance.
In the regions, the number of quits rose over the year in the Midwest and West. (See table 10.)

The layoffs and discharges rate was unchanged in April at 1.2 percent. The rate was unchanged over the
month for total private (1.3 percent) and little changed for government (0.4 percent). The layoffs and
discharges rate was unchanged in all four regions. Seasonally adjusted estimates of layoffs and
discharges are not available for individual industries. (See table 5.)

The layoffs and discharges level (not seasonally adjusted) was little changed over the 12 months ending
in April for total nonfarm, total private, and government. The number of layoffs and discharges
decreased over the year in other services and federal government. The number of layoffs and discharges
was little changed in all four regions over the year. (See table 11.)

In April, there were 373,000 other separations for total nonfarm, little changed from March. The number
of other separations for total private was little changed over the month at 313,000 but fell to 59,000 for
government. (See table 6.) Seasonally adjusted estimates of other separations are not available for
individual industries or regions. Over the 12 months ending in April, the number of other separations
(not seasonally adjusted) was little changed for total nonfarm and total private, and was unchanged for
government. (See table 12.)

Net Change in Employment

Large numbers of hires and separations occur every month throughout the business cycle. Net
employment change results from the relationship between hires and separations. When the number of
hires exceeds the number of separations, employment rises, even if the hires level is steady or declining.
Conversely, when the number of hires is less than the number of separations, employment declines, even
if the hires level is steady or rising. Over the 12 months ending in April 2014, hires totaled 55.1 million
and separations totaled 52.8 million, yielding a net employment gain of 2.2 million. These figures
include workers who may have been hired and separated more than once during the year.
____________
The Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey results for May 2014 are scheduled to be released
on Tuesday, July 8, 2014 at 10:00 a.m. (EDT).



Logos, product and company names mentioned are the property of their respective owners.