Unemployment Numbers

U.S. Gross Job Gains Increase and Gross Job Losses Decrease in Fourth Quarter 2012

From September 2012 to December 2012 gross job gains from opening and expanding private sector establishments increased to 7.1 million. Gross job losses from closing and contracting private sector establishments fell to 6.4 million.
unemployed woman showing a message in a cardboard that she is free to work
U.S. Gross Job Gains Increase and Gross Job Losses Decrease in Fourth Quarter 2012

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

BUSINESS EMPLOYMENT DYNAMICS:  FOURTH QUARTER 2012

From September 2012 to December 2012 gross job gains from opening
and expanding private sector establishments were 7.1 million, an
increase of 238,000 jobs from the previous quarter, the U.S. Bureau
of Labor Statistics reported today. Over this period, gross job losses
from closing and contracting private sector establishments were 6.4
million, a decrease of 231,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

The difference between the number of gross job gains and the number
of gross job losses yielded a net employment gain of 668,000 jobs in
the private sector during the fourth quarter of 2012. (See table 1.)

The change in the number of jobs over time is the net result of
increases and decreases in employment that occur at all businesses
in the economy. Business Employment Dynamics (BED) statistics track
these changes in employment at private business units from the third
month of one quarter to the third month of the next. Gross job gains
are the sum of increases in employment from expansions at existing
units and the addition of new jobs at opening units. Gross job losses
are the result of contractions in employment at existing units and the
loss of jobs at closing units. The difference between the number of
gross job gains and the number of gross job losses is the net change
in employment. (See the Technical Note for more information.)

The BED data series include gross job gains and gross job losses at the
establishment level by industry subsector and for the 50 states, the
District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as
gross job gains and gross job losses at the firm level by employer size
class.

Gross job gains at expanding establishments totaled 5.8 million in
fourth quarter 2012, an increase of 207,000 jobs from the previous
quarter.

Opening establishments accounted for 1.3 million jobs gained in fourth
quarter 2012, an increase of 31,000 jobs from the previous quarter.

Contracting establishments lost 5.2 million jobs in fourth quarter
2012. This is a decrease of 206,000 jobs from the prior quarter.

In the fourth quarter of 2012, closing establishments lost 1.2 million
jobs, a decrease of 25,000 jobs from the previous quarter.
(See tables 1 and 3.)

Gross job gains represented 6.4 percent of private sector employment
in fourth quarter 2012, while gross job losses represented 5.8 percent
of private sector employment. (See table 2.)

In the fourth quarter of 2012, the number of establishment births
(a subset of the openings data, see the Technical Note for more
information) decreased by 1,000 to 192,000. These new establishments
accounted for 766,000 jobs, a decrease of 23,000 from the previous
quarter. (See table 8.)

Data for establishment deaths (a subset of the closings data) are
available through first quarter 2012, when 605,000 jobs were lost at
181,000 establishments. These figures represent decreases from the
prior quarter when 750,000 jobs were lost at 191,000 establishments.

During the fourth quarter of 2012, gross job losses exceeded gross
job gains in only two industry sectors: natural resources and mining,
and manufacturing. The manufacturing sector experienced its first
negative net change since March 2010, losing 11,000 jobs. The
information sector had gross job gains of 141,000 and gross job losses
of 120,000, which resulted in a positive net change of 21,000 jobs.
This is the largest increase in the information sector since third
quarter 2000 and only the second increase in the last five years.
(See table 3.)

Gross job gains exceeded gross job losses in all three major firm size
classes during fourth quarter 2012. Firms with 250 or more employees
experienced the largest net increase of 379,000 jobs.
(See tables 4 and 5.)


Table A. Three-month private sector gross job gains and losses,
seasonally adjusted

Category 3 months ended

Dec. Mar. June Sept. Dec.
2011 2012 2012 2012 2012

Levels (in thousands)

Gross job gains................ 6,909 6,935 7,004 6,813 7,051
At expanding establishments... 5,557 5,706 5,744 5,545 5,752
At opening establishments..... 1,352 1,229 1,260 1,268 1,299

Gross job losses............... 6,520 6,121 6,422 6,614 6,383
At contracting establishments. 5,238 4,935 5,213 5,386 5,180
At closing establishments..... 1,282 1,186 1,209 1,228 1,203

Net employment change(1)....... 389 814 582 199 668

Rates (percent)

Gross job gains................ 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.4
At expanding establishments... 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.0 5.2
At opening establishments..... 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2

Gross job losses............... 6.0 5.6 5.8 6.0 5.8
At contracting establishments. 4.8 4.5 4.7 4.9 4.7
At closing establishments..... 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

Net employment change(1)....... .3 .7 .5 .2 .6

(1) The net employment change is the difference between total
gross job gains and total gross job losses. See the Technical
Note for further information.

In the fourth quarter of 2012, gross job gains exceeded gross job
losses in 47 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the
Virgin Islands. California had the largest net employment gain of
134,544 jobs. Two states, Alaska and Wyoming, tied for the highest
rate of gross job gains as a percent of employment at 9.5 percent,
above the U.S. national rate of 6.4 percent. Hawaii had the lowest
rate of gross job losses as a percent of employment at 4.4 percent,
below the national rate of 5.8 percent. (See tables 6 and 7.)

More Information
Additional information on gross job gains and gross job losses are
available online at www.bls.gov/bdm. This information includes data
on the levels and rates of gross job gains and gross job losses by
firm size, not seasonally adjusted data and other seasonally adjusted
time series not presented in this release, charts of gross job gains
and gross job losses by industry and firm size, and frequently asked
questions on firm size data. Additional information about the Business
Employment Dynamics data can be found in the Technical Note of this
release or may be obtained by e-mailing BDMinfo@bls.gov.


The Business Employment Dynamics for First Quarter 2013 are scheduled
to be released on Tuesday, November 19, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. (EST).


| Changes to Business Employment Dynamics (BED) Data |
|Data in the next release, published on Tuesday, November 19, 2013, will |
|incorporate annual revisions to the BED series. Annual revisions are |
|published each year with the release of first quarter data. These |
|revisions will cover the last four quarters of not seasonally adjusted |
|data and five years of seasonally adjusted data. |










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